Neidio i'r prif gynnwy

Cymhwystra ar gyfer y brechlyn

Mae'r brechlyn yn cael ei gynnig i'r rhai sy'n wynebu'r perygl mwyaf yn gyntaf. Yn y pen draw, bydd pob person 16 oed a throsodd yn cael cynnig y brechlyn.

Y Cydbwyllgor ar Imiwneiddio a Brechu (JCVI) ar lefel y DU sy'n cynghori pa grwpiau i'w blaenoriaethu i gael brechlyn COVID-19 yn gyntaf. Mae hyn yn seiliedig ar dystiolaeth ynghylch pwy sydd fwyaf mewn perygl o salwch difrifol a marwolaeth o COVID-19. Mae manylion llawn ar gael yma.

Mae'r JCVI yn cynghori mai'r blaenoriaethau cyntaf ar gyfer rhaglen frechu COVID-19 ddylai fod atal marwolaethau a chynnal y systemau iechyd a gofal cymdeithasol. Oherwydd bod y risg o farwolaeth o COVID-19 yn cynyddu gydag oedran, mae'r blaenoriaethu yn seiliedig ar oedran yn bennaf. 

Mae'r rhestr flaenoriaeth fel a ganlyn: 

  1. preswylwyr mewn cartref gofal ar gyfer oedolion hŷn a'u gofalwyr 
  2. pawb 80 oed a throsodd a gweithwyr iechyd a gofal cymdeithasol rheng flaen 
  3. pawb 75 oed a throsodd 
  4. pawb 70 oed a throsodd ac unigolion sy'n eithriadol o agored i niwed yn glinigol 
  5. pawb 65 oed a throsodd 
  6. pob unigolyn 16 oed i 64 oed sydd â chyflyrau iechyd sylfaenol sy'n eu rhoi mewn mwy o berygl o glefyd difrifol a marwolaeth (gweler tabl 3 isod) *gweler y tabl isod am fwy o fanylion am ofalwyr*
  7. pawb 60 oed a throsodd 
  8. pawb 55 oed a throsodd 
  9. pawb 50 oed a throsodd 

Amcangyfrifir bod y grwpiau hyn, gyda'i gilydd, yn cynrychioli tua 99% o farwolaethau y gellir eu hatal o COVID-19. 

Mae'r JCVI yn cynghori ei bod yn debygol y bydd rhaglen sy'n seiliedig ar oedran yn arwain at ddarpariaeth gyflymach a chynyddu nifer y rhai sy'n cael y brechlyn ymhlith y rhai sy'n wynebu'r risg fwyaf.
 

Table 3 Clinical risk groups 16 years of age and over who should receive COVID-19 immunisation.

Chronic respiratory disease

Individuals with a severe lung condition, including those with asthma that requires continuous or repeated use of systemic steroids or with previous exacerbations requiring hospital admission, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including chronic bronchitis and emphysema; bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung fibrosis, pneumoconiosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Chronic heart disease and vascular disease

Congenital heart disease, hypertension with cardiac complications, chronic heart failure, individuals requiring regular medication and/or follow-up for ischaemic heart disease. This includes individuals with atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease or a history of venous thromboembolism.

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease at stage 3, 4 or 5, chronic kidney failure, nephrotic syndrome, kidney transplantation.

Chronic liver disease

Cirrhosis, biliary atresia, chronic hepatitis.

Chronic neurological disease

Stroke, transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Conditions in which respiratory function may be compromised due to neurological disease (e.g. polio syndrome sufferers). This includes individuals with cerebral palsy, severe or profound learning disabilities, Down’s Syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, motor neurone disease and related or similar conditions; or hereditary and degenerative disease of the nervous system or muscles; or severe neurological disability.

Diabetes mellitus

Any diabetes, including diet-controlled diabetes.

Immunosuppression

Immunosuppression due to disease or treatment, including patients undergoing chemotherapy leading to immunosuppression, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy, solid organ transplant recipients, bone marrow or stem cell transplant recipients, HIV infection at all stages, multiple myeloma or genetic disorders affecting the immune system (e.g. IRAK-4, NEMO, complement disorder, SCID). Individuals who are receiving immunosuppressive or immunomodulating biological therapy including, but not limited to, anti-TNF, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, rituximab, patients receiving protein kinase inhibitors or PARP inhibitors, and individuals treated with steroid sparing agents such as cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate mofetil. Individuals treated with or likely to be treated with systemic steroids for more than a month at a dose equivalent to prednisolone at 20mg or more per day for adults. Anyone with a history of haematological malignancy, including leukaemia, lymphoma, and myeloma and those with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis who may require long term immunosuppressive treatments. Most of the more severely immunosuppressed individuals in this group should already be flagged as CEV. Individuals who are not yet on the CEV list but who are about to receive highly immunosuppressive interventions or those whose level of immunosuppression is about to increase may be therefore be offered vaccine alongside the CEV group, if therapy can be safely delayed or there is sufficient time (ideally two weeks) before therapy commences. Some immunosuppressed patients may have a suboptimal im

Asplenia or dysfunction of the spleen

This also includes conditions that may lead to splenic dysfunction, such as homozygous sickle cell disease, thalassemia major and coeliac syndrome.

Morbid obesity

Adults with a Body Mass Index ≥40 kg/m²

Severe mental illness

Individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, or any mental illness that causes severe functional impairment.

Adult carers

Those who are eligible for a carer’s allowance, or those who are the sole or primary carer of an elderly or disabled person who is at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality and therefore clinically vulnerable.1

Younger adults in long-stay nursing and residential care settings

Many younger adults in residential care settings will be eligible for vaccination because they fall into one of the clinical risk groups above (for example learning disabilities). Given the likely high risk of exposure in these settings, where a high proportion of the population would be considered eligible, vaccination of the whole resident population is recommended. Younger residents in care homes for the elderly will be at high risk of exposure, and although they may be at lower risk of mortality than older residents should not be excluded from vaccination programmes (see priority 1 above). For consideration of children under 16 see below.

Ffynhonnell: Y Llyfr Gwyrdd pennod 14a
1 Mae'r rhai sy'n glinigol agored i niwed i COVID yn cynnwys plant â niwro-anableddau difrifol, y rhai sydd wedi'u dynodi'n Eithriadol o Agored i Niwed yn Glinigol (CEV), oedolion sydd â chyflyrau iechyd sylfaenol (fel y'u diffinnir yn nhabl 3), a'r rhai y mae angen gofal arnynt oherwydd oedran sylweddol. Dylid brechu gofalwyr cymwys yng ngrŵp blaenoriaeth 6.

Mae gan blant a phobl ifanc risg isel iawn o COVID-19, clefyd difrifol neu farwolaeth oherwydd SARS-CoV-2 o gymharu ag oedolion ac felly nid yw brechlynnau COVID-19 yn cael eu hargymell fel mater o drefn i blant a phobl ifanc o dan 16 oed hyd yn oed os ydynt mewn grŵp eithriadol o agored i niwed yn glinigol.

Wrth i gam cyntaf y rhaglen gael ei gyflwyno yn y DU, bydd data ychwanegol ar gael ar ddiogelwch ac effeithiolrwydd brechlynnau COVID-19. Bydd y data hyn yn darparu'r sail ar gyfer ystyried brechu mewn grwpiau sy'n wynebu llai o risg o farwolaeth o COVID-19.